微软中国研究院-培训师内训资料(PPT 72页)

发布于:2021-06-23 11:10:22

21 Secrets to Becoming A Good Speaker
Kai-Fu Lee Managing Director Microsoft Research, China

We Present Every Day!
? Not just conference talks….
– Product group meetings – BillG / TAB meetings – Preamble to a demo – Convince a product group to be interested – Present patent to a lawyer – Present a group result at offsite – “Elevator” talks

But I’m not good at it….
? Presentation skills can be acquired. ? Examples:
– Bill Gates – Kai-Fu Lee

What You’ll Learn Today:
? Communication skills ? Preparing the Talk ? Delivering the Talk ? Handling Q&A ? 21 secrets to becoming a good speaker.

What is Communication Skills?

? Verbal (words spoken)
? Vocal (tone, range, appeal, credibility of voice)
? Visual (physical appearance, clothing, gestures, eye contact)

? 7% ? 38%
? 55%

Communication Skills

The Importance of Communication Skills
“Without effective delivery, a speech of the highest mental capacity can be held in no esteem.
With effective delivery, even one with moderate abilities may surpass those of the highest talent.”
-- Cicero “The man who can think and does not know
how to express what he thinks is at the level of him who cannot think.”
-- Pericles

Communication Skills = Fake?
? Most important factor is PASSION!
– If you’re passionate, your vocal & visual skills will come naturally.
? Passion could come from subject, experience, or environment. – “There is just one sure cure for bad speeches –
Get truly excited on the subject, and 99 percent of the faults of your speaking will disappear.”
-- Robert Montgomery
? But there are skills to be learned.
–Like reading, writing, typing…. –Must learn this, if you want your work to be understood!

Verbal Skills
? Be simple and clear!
– Don’t ramble. – Stop to think if you need to. – Example one: Dan Quayle celebrates
democracy: – Example two: Dan Quayle trying to say
“A mind is a terrible thing to waste”

Verbal Skills
? Speaking is not like writing!!!
– Use simple words. – Don’t use complex sentences. – Can you understand this:
? Don’t use ambiguous words in speech.

Vocal Skills
? Project & resonate your voice. ? No “UM”s and “ER”s. (Pause instead). ? Silence is a tool (To draw attention).

Vocal Skills
? Play your voice with pitch and tempo. ? To amplify a point, slow down, speak loudly,
exaggerate inotation, pause in the right places.
– “You are right. I am wrong” – Stalin to Trotsky
– “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country” -- John F. Kennedy
– BAD EXAMPLE : “I welcome this kind of examination, because people have to know whether their president is a crook. Well, I’m not a crook.” -- Richard M. Nixon
? Don’t use it everywhere!

Vocal Skills : Same message;
many ways to deiver
? John Kennedy:
– “You need to contribute to your country”’ – “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask
what you can do for your country”.
? Quayle vs. Benson Debate:
– Quayle: "I have as much experience in the Congress as Jack Kennedy did when he sought the presidency."
– Answer 1: “Jack Kennedy is better than you.” – Answer 2: "Senator, I served with Jack
Kennedy. I knew Jack Kennedy. Jack Kennedy was a friend of mine.

Vocal Skills : Enthusiasm
? Passion & Enthusiasm!
– If you’re not passionate, why should we care?
? Example: Martin Luther King
– I have a dream. That one day This nation will rise up Live up to the true meaning to its creed: We hold these truths to be self-evident That all men are created equal.

Visual Skills
? Visual Skills – THE most important
– Appear trustworthy & respectful. – US Election 1960 was won on visual skills.
? Components of Visual Skills
– Eyes – Body – Hands – Face

Visual Skills – Eyes
? Look forward at audience (trust)
– Don’t shift eyeballs; don’t look in corner. – Don’t look too much at computer screen or
your notes.
? Look at people’s faces (not eyes)
– 3-6 seconds per person. – Shift randomly. – Nod, smile, use facial expression.

Visual Skills – Body
? Stand up when talking. ? Walk around = informal. ? Don’t:
– Rock, shake, lean too much.

Visual Skills – Hands
? Gesture complements talk.
– Should come naturally, without thinking. – Make sure they match!
? Need to exaggerate a little
– Especially with large audience.
? Don’t fidget or put in pocket. ? Videotape whole talk & watch.

Visual Skills – Face
? Show emotion! ? Most of the time:
– “I care a lot about this.” – “I really believe in this.” – “I love my work.”
? Sometimes (in response to questions).
– “This is the most outrageous thing I’ve ever heard.” – “I will have nothing to do with this.”

What You’ll Learn Today:
? Communication skills ? Preparing the Talk ? Delivering the Talk ? Handling Q&A ? 21 secrets to becoming a good speaker.

Preparing the Talk
? Always OVERPREPARE!!!!! ? Preparation includes:
– Researching the background. – Organizing the talk. – Writing the slides. – Rehearsing the talk. – Last minute things….

Researching the Background
? When you’re invited, find out:
– How long is the talk? – What’s the topic?
? (Say no if you don’t care about the topic).
– Who’s the audience.
? Once you say yes, you are COMMITTED to do a great job.

Organizing the Talk
? You’re the salesman. ? First lesson for salesmen:
– “Tell them what you’re going to say. – Say it. – Tell them what you said”
? Very similar to your paper!

The Central Message (it)
? People will not remember everything. ? Have ONE clear walk-away message.
– What do you want people to remember in 3 months?
– The answer to the question: “How was the talk?”
? Repeat it!

The Opening
? Say something provoking! ? Give a (very short) outline/overview.

The Substance
? Logical. ? Convincing.
– Help them remember the message! – Anticipate doubts & remove them.
? Smooth transitions
– Don’t lose the audience – OK to re-order the sub-topics.
? Keep repeating the message!

? End with a BANG! ? Repeat the message. ? Say thank you.

The Ending

Writing the Visuals (PowerPoint)
? Prepation (80% time)
– First prepare outline (recommend : Word). – Then modify outline for:
? Logic onvincing, flow, transitions….
? Actual Slide Writing (20% time)
– Should come almost directly from the outline.

Use of Visuals (PowerPoint)
? Visuals only support your talk.
– Spend more time on your talk!
? Simple and clear
– 1 idea; 3 sub-concepts; <= 6 lines. – Readable – Big & color-coordinated.
? Don’t read from the slides!

What if Talk is Complex
? Don’t lose people.
– Use grayed out outline.
? If idea is complex:
– Try really hard to avoid complex slides, but… – If you must use it, use layers (prevent read-
ahead & lack of focus).
? Remember to change slides for printing. ? Example….

If you must use complex layers… a good example

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schemes

Use of Demos / Multimedia
? Keeps the talk interesting. ? Don’t overdo it.
– Should be tied to content.
? Ordering :
– 2,N, N-1, N-2,….3, 1

Rehearsing Your Talk
? Record & listen to every talk at least twice! ? Record:
– Best : PowerPoint features. – OK : Tape recorder. – Must do sometime :
? Video ? Ask experienced speaker to critique.
? Improve:
– Style, logic, timing per slide.

Get the Timing Right!
? Running out of time is a disaster. ? Write how much time should remain on
each slide.

After you’re more experienced….
? No longer necessary to record. ? Every new talk still must be rehearsed. ? Bring notes if you aren’t confident.

Just Before the Talk….
? Prepare something matching the occasion. ? Make sure you’re not too tired:
– Get enough sleep the previous night. – Drink 3 cups of coffee!

What You’ll Learn Today:
? Communication skills ? Preparing the Talk ? Delivering the Talk ? Handling Q&A ? 21 secrets to becoming a good speaker.

Delivering the Talk
? Overcoming language barrier. ? Overcoming nervousness. ? Art of Good Opening & ending. ? Humor ? Audience participation

Overcoming Language Barrier
? Perfect English not necessary. ? Know your limitations.
– Don’t use fancy words, complex sentences. – Don’t take any chance of looking silly.
? OK to bring cheat notes!

Outline & Script
? Always make an outline.
– PowerPoint notes; Word Outline. – Don’t have to use it.
? It may be best to READ a speech.
– No excuse not to be fluent! (practice!) – Don’t stare at paper. – (Memorize it if you’re prefer).

Overcoming Nervousness
“Do the thing you fear and the death of fear is certain.” -- Ralph Waldo Emerson

Hiding Nervousness
? It is possible to hide nervousness! ? Don’t let the shaking show!
– Make a fist; hold the lectern. – Speak loudly. – Take a deep breath.
? Look at a friendly face. ? Look above people’s heads.

Art of Good Opening & Ending
? Opening
– Say something relevant to the occasion. – Need to research background before the talk.
? Ending
– “If you remember only one thing from this talk, then you should remember XXX”.

? Good humor:
– Respectful. – Relevant (better yet: original). – Short.
? Plan your jokes:
– Remember what worked. – Use it again!

Humor

Humor
? How to tell a joke?
– Set up (people should know a joke is coming up).
– Pause after climax (punch line).
? Move on naturally if no reaction!

Audience Participation
? Best way for people to remember! ? Ask audience a question
– Anticipate their answer(s)! – Respond with something interesting AND
relevant.

Be Yourself
? Learn the skills; don’t copy the styles. ? You must be yourself to be credible. ? Many styles could be effective:
– Bill Gates – Brilliant technologist – Steve Ballmer – Powerful salesman – Steve Jobs – Passionate evangelist

What You’ll Learn Today:
? Communication skills ? Preparing the Talk ? Delivering the Talk ? Handling Q&A ? 21 secrets to becoming a good speaker.

? Q&A is your chance to:
– Amplify your points. – Increase your credibility.

Q&A

Dealing with Questions
? Easy Questions
– Amplify your points!
? Hard Questions
– No need to answer directly. – But don’t hide!
? Narrow Questions
– Take offline.

Q&A – Giving A Good Answer
? Respect the listener ? Right body language ? Repeat the question
– Complete if people cannot hear. – Paraphrase to help amplify your point.
? If people are too shy, you start! ? Don’t argue or dismiss a question.

21 Secrets
#1 Anybody can learn to give a good talk.

21 Secrets
#2 Don’t give a talk unless you’re passionate.

21 Secrets
#3 Use simple and clear words.

21 Secrets
#4 Play your voice to focus on key points.

21 Secrets
#5 Silence is a great tool.

21 Secrets
#6 Overprepare every talk.

21 Secrets
#7 Tell them what you’re going to say. Say it.
Tell them what you said.

21 Secrets
#8 Have ONE clear central message for: the question “How was the talk”

21 Secrets
#9 Open your talk with something thought-provoking

21 Secrets
#10 Slides should be simple & clear.

21 Secrets
#11 Don’t read from your slides.

21 Secrets
#12 Order your demos.

21 Secrets
#13 Rehearse & listen to each talk at least twice!

21 Secrets
#14 Time your talk on every slide.

21 Secrets
#15 It may be OK to read from a script.

21 Secrets
#16 Stay awake! Drink 3 cups of coffee before your talk.

21 Secrets
#17 It is possible to hide nervousness.

21 Secrets
#18 Tailor your opening remarks to the occasion.

21 Secrets
#19 “If you only remember one thing from this talk, you should remember XXX”

21 Secrets
#20 Humor & Interactivity must be relevant and well-planned.

21 Secrets
#21 Q&A can help you more than the audience.

? Giving a talk is easy ? It just takes:
– A little passion – A lot of practice!

Conclusion


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